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Microparticles, Vascular Function, and Atherothrombosis

Abstract : Membrane-shed submicron microparticles (MPs) are released after cell activation or apoptosis. High levels of MPs circulate in the blood of patients with atherothrombotic diseases, where they could serve as a useful biomarker of vascular injury and a potential predictor of cardiovascular mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events. Atherosclerotic lesions also accumulate large numbers of MPs of leukocyte, smooth muscle cell, endothelial, and erythrocyte origin. A large body of evidence supports the role of MPs at different steps of atherosclerosis development, progression, and complications. Circulating MPs impair the atheroprotective function of the vascular endothelium, at least partly, by decreased nitric oxide synthesis. Plaque MPs favor local inflammation by augmenting the expression of adhesion molecule, such as intercellular adhesion molecule -1 at the surface of endothelial cell, and monocyte recruitment within the lesion. In addition, plaque MPs stimulate angiogenesis, a key event in the transition from stable to unstable lesions. MPs also may promote local cell apoptosis, leading to the release and accumulation of new MPs, and thus creating a vicious circle. Furthermore, highly thrombogenic plaque MPs could increase thrombus formation at the time of rupture, together with circulating MPs released in this context by activated platelets and leukocytes. Finally, MPs also could participate in repairing the consequences of arterial occlusion and tissue ischemia by promoting postischemic neovascularization.
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http://hal.univ-nantes.fr/hal-03367521
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Submitted on : Friday, October 8, 2021 - 1:58:48 PM
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Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Anne-Clémence Vion, Nicolas Amabile, Gilles Chironi, Alain Simon, et al.. Microparticles, Vascular Function, and Atherothrombosis. Circulation Research, American Heart Association, 2011, 109 (5), pp.593-606. ⟨10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.233163⟩. ⟨hal-03367521⟩

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