Les risques hydrologiques dans les bassins versants sous contrôle anthropique : modélisation de l'aléa, de la vulnérabilité et des conséquences sur les sociétés. : Cas de la région Sud-ouest de Madagascar

Abstract : Hydrological risks are recurrent on the Fiherenana watershed - Madagascar. The city of Toliara, which is located at the outlet of the river basin, is subject each year to hurricane hazards and floods. The stakes are of major importance in this part of the island. This study begins with the analysis of hazard by collecting all existing hydro-climatic data on the catchment. It then seeks to determine trends, despite the significant lack of data, using statistical models (time series). Then, two approaches are used to assess the vulnerability of the city of Toliara and its surrounding villages. First, a static approach, from surveys of land and the use of GIS are conducted. Then, the second method is based on a multi-agent model. The first step is the mapping of a microscale vulnerability index which is an arrangement of several static criteria. For each House, there are several criteria of vulnerability such as potential water depth or architectural typology. As for the second part, scenes of agents are simulated in order to evaluate the degree of housing vulnerability to flooding. The model aims to estimate the chances of the occupants to escape from a catastrophic flood. For this purpose, we compare various settings and scenarios, some of which are conducted to take into account the effect of various decisions made by the responsible entities (awareness campaign etc.). The simulation consists of two essential parts: the simulation of the rise of water and the simulation of the behaviour of the people facing the occurence of hazard. Indicators and simulations allow to better understand the risks in order to help crisis management. Key Words: Hy
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Mahefa Rakotoarisoa. Les risques hydrologiques dans les bassins versants sous contrôle anthropique : modélisation de l'aléa, de la vulnérabilité et des conséquences sur les sociétés. : Cas de la région Sud-ouest de Madagascar. Géographie. Université d'Angers; Université de Tuléar, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ANGE0067⟩. ⟨tel-02066645⟩

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